The Campaign - The Science
CYCLONE PANCHO HAS MADE THE
The Strait’s Salt Project proposed for the eastern side
of Exmouth Gulf is now with Environment Minister for a decision
after a record 12 months with the Appeal’s Convenor.
This project proposed to build a massive solar salt pond complex
on the supra-tidal flat between the Gulf’s unique sub-tropical
mangrove system and the arid hinterland. This complex would effectively
block the sheet flow of floodwaters from the catchment to the biologically
productive waters of Exmouth Gulf.
In its Public Environmental Review the proponents erected what
could be termed the ‘vacant habitat hypothesis’. The
proposition was that bare sediment of the supratidal flat was an
empty ecosystem with no effective hydrological connection (surface
or groundwater) with the mangroves or the waters of the Gulf. According
to the proponent’s modeling flood-out events across the supra-tidal
flat were so infrequent that they were ecologically insignificant
and that the productive Yannarie Wetland system, with its mangroves,
algal mats and sub-tidal banks, got all its nutrients from the ocean,
perhaps augmented by an upwelling area north of NW Cape. Placing
a barrier across the flat was therefore totally benign.
During the PER phase CCWA citizen scientists, the North-west Research
Association and M.G. Kailis carried at our stable-isotope snapshot
survey of the Gulf. The results showed that the dominant producers
of the productive inner and eastern Gulf were seaweeds and seagrasses
and that the nitrogen feeding these plants was not coming primarily
from the ocean or an upwelling. Pulses of terrestrial nutrients
were likely to be important in driving the productivity cycles that
had been observed historically in the seagrass and prawn catches.
Contrary to the proponents ‘modeling ‘ two cyclonic
events have been observed to produce a hydrological connection between
the eastern catchment and the Gulf waters in the recent past, Cyclone
Bobby in February 1995 and Cyclone Pancho in March 2008. Two others,
Vance in 1999 and Steve in 2000, may also have done so but there
are no records of what happened across the supra-tidal flat during
In March 2008 Cyclone Pancho dumped heavy rainfall on the Gascoyne
Region, Learmonth received 119mm in the peak 24 hour period. An
aerial survey organized by the Halt the Salt campaign within days
of the cyclone passage revealed a complete hydrological connection
with floodwaters discharging through the many mangrove line distributor
channels. This provided a well timed opportunity to test the ‘vacant
At the Australian Marine Sciences Association annual conference
early in July 2009 Dr Catherine Lovelock from the Centre for Marine
Studies, University of Queensland presented a paper on nutrient
limitation in the mangroves of Exmouth Gulf. Dr Lovelock found that
a period of nitrogen and phosphorous limitation on mangrove trees
in the Yannarie wetland system since Cyclone Steve was relieved
by Cyclone Pancho. It was highly probable that these nutrients were
carried from the catchment across the supra-tidal flat either dissolved
in floodwaters or incorporated in terrestrial sediments.
The results of the most recently reported scientific research would
appear to be another rejection of the ‘vacant habitat hypothesis’.
If the Minister for the Environment decides to approve the Yannarie
Solar Project it will not be with the science on her side.
The supra-tidal flat flooding out during Cyclone Bobby.
Floodwaters entering Exmouth Gulf through the Yannarie Wetlands
following Cyclone Pancho.
Citizen scientists at work. Exmouth Gulf November 2005.